NMIA Airport Locality Boundary: The airport’s runway is closely tied to the delineation of the airport’s locality boundary since the runway’s size/rating will dictate the required space for both take-off and landing. NMIA operates a Precision Approach Category 4 Runway that can accommodate Code C aircrafts. Based on ICAO guidelines, the approach and take off horizontal surface should extend a radius of 15,000m (Hunter, 2007) from the airport. This is established through a series of obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) that define the limits to which objects may project into the airspace. The OLS is divided into three (3) sections. The first section extends to a horizontal distance of 3,000m with divergence of 15 % on each side and has a 60m height from the runway threshold with a 2 % slope. The second section starts directly after the first section at a slope of 2.5 % and extends horizontally 3,600m. The horizontal section then extends to 8,400m and has a 90m height from the runway threshold – for a total approach length [and radius] of 15,000m.
The previous zoning and regulations governing the airport are outdated and ineffective and restrict the continued development and expansion of the airport, consistent with international and local regulations and the 2013 masterplan. Therefore, there was a need for an update. As part of the NMIA Various Environmental and Other Baseline Studies an updated airport zoning overlay district and land use map was generated to provide an additional regulatory layer to the base zoning requirements. In general, uses allowed in the underlying district are permitted to the extent they are not restricted by the specific requirements of the overlay zone. The overlay district is a more concise set of rules specifically related to the NMIA which can be put into effect via Development Orders of the 3 Municipalities which the NMIA Airport Zone relates to (namely: Kingston &St Andrew, Portmore and St. Thomas).
The overlay zoning divides the airport’s imaginary and land surfaces into 4 zoning districts, namely,
- Airport district
The “airport district” is defined as all those lands controlled by the airport, either by fee ownership or by an easement, and intended to be used for airport purposes. The airport district is created to encompass areas that, due to the operation of aircraft, could be exposed to excessive noise, are within the aircraft approach and departure areas, or are in areas which are exposed to a greater risk of aircraft crashes (crash hazard area). The airport district is established to protect the approaches to the airport from incompatible land uses, and to preserve the airport’s ability to serve its present and future air transportation needs. Any new building, or expansion, alteration, or enlargement of any existing building, structure, or property within this zone must be approved by the Municipality and the JCAA. Any construction, expansion, alteration, or enlargement must receive a favorable airspace review from the JCAA. The boundaries of the airport district are shown on the airport zoning map.
- Runway Approach and Departure District (Noise Control)
The purpose of this district is to establish land use requirements in areas that are typically overflown by aircraft during takeoff and landing maneuvers, and hence could be subjected to excessive noise and greater risk of aircraft crashes.
- Agriculture, including essential non-residential facilities.
- Airport owned or operated facilities.
- Commercial and governmental uses that are not places of public assembly.
- Floriculture, horticulture, orchards, hatcheries, game farms – except aviaries.
- Light recreational (non-spectator).
- Mining and excavation.
- Open space.
- Parking lots and parking facilities with downlit lights.
- Transportation routes, including roads and rail lines.
- Overflight, Height and Wildlife Limitation District
The purpose of this district is to minimize the conflict between allowed uses and the aircraft noise generated in this zone.
- All uses are allowed; provided, that the proposed development meets the following requirements:
- No structures may exceed the height permitted by the airport zoning map.
- The proposed use meets the underlying municipal zoning requirements.
- Overflight and Height Limitation District
The purpose of this district is to protect the approaches to the airport from the construction or erection of structures that would constitute a hazard to air navigation, and from incompatible land uses.
- All uses are allowed provided that the proposed development meets all uses allowed by the underlying municipal zoning requirements.
These 4 zones outlines specific ordinances, their purpose/intent, relation to other zoned areas, permitted and prohibited uses; use restrictions; approvals and permits; administration; appeals and review; penalties and severability.